- 2212 HSSB
Buddhist education underwent unprecedented changes and transformations in the early twentieth century. Graduates of modern Buddhist academies formed fluid yet powerful networks in the Chinese worlds and beyond. Focusing on the lesser known, often labeled "conservative" Tiantai network, this talk discusses the challenges, innovations, tension, and competition for voice and agency in the formulation of identity and orthodoxy in modern Chinese Buddhism. It argues that these visions and imaginations were indispensable in shaping the border-crossing experience of Chinese Buddhists in subsequent decades.